Journal Articles and External Publications
"Chrysanthemum x grandiflorum MN Sel'n. 90-275-27 Groundcover Garden Chrysanthemum", HortScience Vol. 51, No. 4, 2016, p. 451-455:Another new garden chrysanthemum phenotype, the groundcover or prostrate plant habit, has been developed by the public sector University of Minnesota, Flower Breeding & Genetics Program. Winterhardiness and flowering before a killing frost were the first traits introduced by the breeding program with 'Duluth' in 1939 (Clark, 1962; University of Minnesota, Minnesota Agricultural Experiment Station, 2014); introduction of winter-hardy cultivars and genotypes has continued unabated ever since. Fall flowering remains a popular trait of all garden chrysanthemum types (Anderson, 2006; Dole and Wilkins, 2005). 'Duluth' has an upright plant habit (cut flower); such cultivars have limited market share due to potential lodging and decreased flower coverage (Anderson, 2006).
"Chrysanthemum x hybridum MN 98-89-7 Shrub Garden Chrysanthemum", HortScience, Vol. 52, Issue 2, pp. 306- 309, February 2017:A new garden chrysanthemum with a shrub plant habit is released as a descendent of a cross involving two hexaploid species: Chrysanthemum weyrichii (Maxim.) Tzvelv. (female) x C. x grandiflorum Tzvelv. (male). Chrysanthemum x hybridum Anderson MN 98-89-7 [U.S. Plant Patent (PP) 14,495] is a vigorously growing shrub chrysanthemum for garden culture, exhibiting extreme hybrid vigor. Single daisy reddish-purple flowers cover the foliage in the fall, numbering >3000 on second-year plants. This selection displays excellent winterhardiness in U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Z3b+ (-34.4 to -37.2 C) as well as frost-tolerant flowers.
"Chrysanthemum x hybridum Mammoth 'Dark Bronze Daisy' Garden Chrysanthemum", HortScience, Vol. 50, No. 8, August 2015, p. 1260-1264:Garden chrysanthemums, Chrysanthemum xgrandiflorum Tzvelv. ( =Dendranthema xgrandiflora Tzvelv.; =C. xmorifolium Ramatuelle), are the number one herbaceous perennial in the top 15 U.S. producing states with a wholesale farm gate value of $27.854 m in 2012 (USDA NASS, 2013). Greenhouse chrysanthemum cultivars of the same species are also widely produced as cut flowers and flowering potted indoor plants worldwide in an extensive range of flower forms, patterns and colors (Anderson, 2006). Fall flowering is a popular trait of all garden types (Anderson, 2006; Dole and Wilkins, 2005). Typical plant habits or phenotypes of garden chrysanthemums are cushion (spherical shape completely covered with flowers obscuring most foliage) and upright (cut flower types) (Langevin, 1992; Widmer, 1980). The cushion habit is the dominant market share form (Anderson, 2004, 2006; Anderson and Gesick, 2003, 2004; Kim and Anderson, 2006), first developed in the 1950s-1970s at the University of Minnesota with the 'Minn' series; 'Minngopher' (PP 4,327) was the first patented cushion cultivar (Widmer, 1978). Mammoth 'Dark Bronze Daisy' garden chrysanthemum was bred, selected, and introduced to continue this outstanding phenotype along with its expansive "shrub" size.